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Saturday, 11 August 2018

History Of Commonwealth

THE ORIGIN OF THE COMMONWEALTH
To understand what is meant by the term "Commonwealth" - that is, the association of nations which retain a close connexion with the United Kingdom and whose prime ministers meet together frequently to discuss matters of common interest - we must go back to the beginning of the twentieth century.
    At this time the United Kingdom was still an imperial Power, but many of her colonies had during the nineteenth century achieved constitutional advance to the stage known as 'representative government'. That is, they had popularly elected legislatures, and the Governor, who was the King's representative in the colony and responsible to the British Secretary of State for the Colonies for the goof government thereof, was required to appoint Ministers who commanded the confidence of the Legislature, and govern through them. These colonies were not, however, independent, because the Governor could still refuse to assent to a Bill passed by the legislature, and thus prevent it becoming law. What is more, a colony at this stage only managed its own internal affairs. It could not make treaties with other nations, because foreign affairs were still managed for it by British Government.

    From 1907, it became customary for the ministers of these colonies with representative government to have regular meetings (known as Imperial Conferences) in London to discuss matters of interest to all of them, including relations with foreign countries; and the British Government never did anything affecting them without their consent. By the 1920s, the United Kingdom had ceased to manage their foreign affairs, and they were known as Dominions rather than colonies. It had become recognized that the Governor (or Governor-General as he was by then called) was simply the personal representative of the king in the Dominion and had ceased to exercise governmental authority - just as the king himself had ceased to do so in Britain. In other words, they had become independent in all but name.
   In 1926, the relations between the United Kingdom and the various Dominions were defined at Imperial Conference of that year in a formula laid down by a committee under the chairmanship of Lord Balfour in the following terms :
They are autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though United by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations 

  The only factors which stood between the Dominions and full independence were the power of the United Kingdom Parliament to make laws for them, and their own inability to amend or repeal United Kingdom laws applying to them. To remove these obstacles Parliament in 1931 enacted the statute of Westminster, which removed virtually all restriction on Dominions' powers to legislate, and laid down that no future laws enacted by Parliament would have effect in a Dominion unless that Dominion so consented. This meant, among other things, that if there were to be any changes in the rules of succession to the Throne of the United Kingdom, they would henceforth have to be brought into effect by simultaneous legislation in all parliament of the Dominions. The Throne belonged to all Dominions, so their laws on succession had to be uniform.

The Statute of Westminster was in effect the charter of Dominion independence, though not every Dominion chose to avail itself of its freedom. To this day, certain parts of the Canadian Constitution cam only be amended by the United Kingdom Parliament; of course, this limitation has only remained in force at the wish of Canada. But although independent, each Dominion retained the king as its own King. Since he could not be present in all these countries he was represented in each by a Governor-General. But the Governor-General acted entirely on the advice of the ministers of the Dominion just as the king himself acted, in all respects, on the advice of his ministers in London. Indeed the Governor-General himself was appointed by the king on the advise of the Prime Minister of the Dominion. The United Kingdom and the Dominions continued to be styled the British Commonwealth of Nations, as originally named in the report of the Balfour Committee, and their Prime Ministers continued meeting regularly as before. The fact that they all owed allegiance to the same King and were British subjects was one of the major factors which maintained a close union between countries.
   The countries forming the original British Commonwealth of Nations were Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and Ireland; of these land cease to be a member in 1949 and South Africa in 1961.
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Saturday, 28 July 2018

The Fence By Lenrie Peters

The poem is based on the proverbial concept of "fence sitting". "Fence sitting" means a state of indecision or dilemma. The poem is an apt description of persons who sit on the fence, thus they are unable to take decisions on vital issues that happens around them. They are neither here or there.

1. In the first stanza of the poem, the poet says that he lies at the meeting point between the dim past and indistinct future. The hopes and aspirations of the past and the future are hazy, vague, bleak, blurred and indistinct. The poet is neither with the past nor, the future. This makes him to be on a fence.

2. In the second stanza, the poet presents himself in a situation where the truth and untruth struggles in an endless battle of supremacy that is the poet cannot be identified with those who say the truth or lies. He is on the fence. 

3. In the third stanza, the poet opines that he is in a place where time moves forward and backward. This oscillating movement of time does not give the poet time to pause (sigh) and rest so that he can brood on his pathetic situation which is characterized by sadness, tiredness and disappointment.

4. In the last stanza (7th), the poet says that he is in a place where the need for good and doing good are in a constant disagreement. Need for good are things which the humans needs to have a just, virile and egalitarian society.

Poetic Devices Used In The Fence 

Repetition, personification, alliteration, anthesis, and symbolism. 
* Repetition ;
(I) my head goes round and round
(ii) "There I lie" is repeated in lines three, six, nine, twelve, twenty-two and twenty-five. 

* Personification ;
(I) There were truth and untruth struggle 
(ii) It seems the world has changed her garment 
(III) There where time moves forward and backward. 

* Antithesis ;
(I) There where the truth and untruth  struggle
(ii) There where the dim past and future mingle
(III) There where the time moves forward and backward. 

* Alliteration ;
(I) There where the difference past and future mingle 
(ii) I hold my head; and then contrive. 

The poem is based on the proverbial concept of "fence sitting".

STRUCTURE OF THE FENCE 
The poem has twenty-five (25) lines. The first, second, third, fourth, sixth and seventh stanzas has three (3) lines. While the fifth stanza has eight (8) lines. The poem was written in a free verse. 

The major theme in the poem is indecision the poet is in dilemma, he finds himself in a situation where he cannot choose between two opposite things that border on moral and psychological decisions. 
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Friday, 27 July 2018

Rule Of Law

The rule of law means the law pre-eminent and superior to the rule of any human leader. It presupposes that the law is above any individual in the system and should be obeyed by all. It is a principle of governance in which all persons including the state itself are all accountable and answerable to laws of the land which are consistent with international human rights norms and standards. The rule of law holds that the law must be prospective, well-known, and have characteristic of generality, equity and certainty. Under the rule of law, the law is pre-eminent and can serve as a check against the abuse of power.
     The rule of law has been considered as one of the key dimension that determine the quality and good governance of a country. When a political leader takes the oath of office, they affirm that the rule of law is superior to the rule of any human leader. They then set up measures to ensure adherence to the principles of supremacy.
         The rule of law implies rights and freedoms; it implies an independent judiciary and social, economic and cultural conditions conducive to human dignity. Credit for popularizing the expression "the rule of law" in modern times is usually given to the popular British Jurist, Professor A.V. Dicey. In 1885, he formulated the three interpretations of the rule of law in his book entitled "Introduction to the Law of the Constitution", as:
(i) The supremacy of the law
(ii) Equality before the law
(iii) Fundamental human right of the individuals.

A. The Supremacy of the Law: This aspect explains that nobody should be punished or subjected to any degrading or crime treatment or punishment except for a breach of law proven in an ordinary court. A person is presumed innocent and subjected to fair and public trial without undue delay until pronounced guilty by ordinary court devoid of secret trials. This also entails that the law is above every citizen and should not be used to oppress the weak and the minorities by the government and their agents.

B. Equality Before the Law: This entails that no one is above the law of the land. There should be equal access to the law legal process; and a rational and propotionate approach to punishment. This recommends fairness and equal access to justice, rights and freedoms. Nobody is above the other under the law. The law binding governor and a president is also binding ordinary citizens and if they break the law; they should be subjected to the same fair trial and punishment if found guilty by the law courts.

C. Fundamental Liberty of the Individuals: 

This entails that the judicial decisions are binding and courts should have the power of judicial review over the way in which the other principles are implemented. It implies that the rule of law includes the results of judicial decisions determining the rights of private persons which are alienable. These rights of citizens should be adequately safeguarded and protected by strong and independent judiciary. The fundamental rights of citizens are :
  • Right to life
  • Right to freedom of expression
  • Right to work 
  • Right to vote and be voted for 
  • Right to freedom of association 
  • Right to education 
  • Right to social security, etc. 

Importance of Rule of Law

(I) The rule of law helps to institute social justice in the society. It develops social, economic an cultural conditions conducive to human dignity. That is why it is regarded as the foundation of a civilized society. 
(ii) The rule of law prevents tyranny and bad governance. It prevents the government and their agents from infringing on the rights and freedom of ordinary citizens. 
(III) The rule of law protects the rights and freedom of citizens; most especially the minorities in a Democratic system. It allow for equity and fair treatment of citizens irrespective of their status. 
(IV) It promotes accountability of the government to the law and to the people upon whom political sovereignty resides. 
(V) It promotes political participation as against political apathy of the citizens. 
(VI) The rule of law strengthens democracy. It protects democracy and serve as the foundation. 

PROBLEMS OF THE RULE OF LAW
There are some problems that may stand as impediment to the smooth application of the rule of law. Some of them are as follows:
  • Under international law; ambassador and high commissioners are not subject to punishment under the law of the country where they reside when they disobey the law. This is because they enjoy diplomatic immunity. They can only be repatriated to their country. 
  • When there is a civil unrest, the government may call for a state of emergency where all Democratic structures will be suspended pro-tem-pore. 
  • Also, a mentally deranged person who is unable cannot be allowed to stand trial. 
  • In Nigeria, the chief executives, that is, the president and the state governors as well as legislators and judges enjoys immunity under the law. 
  • Another problem of the rule of is the use of special courts, for example, tribunals etc. To handle cases which may in turn pervert justice. 
  • The rule of law cannot be upheld in a system where there is no democratic government. 
  • The rights of the citizen is limited by the respect for the rights of the other citizens for example, citizens have freedom of expression, but they are not allowed under the law to say things that may affect the dignity and personality of other citizens. 

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Wednesday, 11 July 2018

NYSC Update

Prospective Corps Members who are yet to register on the NYSC portal including the newly uploaded graduates your Registration starts from 10th July 2018 to 16th July 2018.

Prospective Corps Members who were mobilised in 2018 Batch “A” and were issued Call-up Numbers but were informed that their Orientation will be in July 2018, are not to register again or revalidate on the portal.

Prospective Corps Members who were mobilised in 2018 Batch “A” and were issued Call-up Numbers but were informed that their Orientation will be in July 2018, are not to register again or revalidate on the portal.

Instead you are to go to the Orientation Camp on the 24th July 2018. You will be informed when to print your Call-up Letter through SMS.

Those who submitted applications for dropping of Biometrics during 2018 Batch “A” Camp Verification should login to their dashboard and re-capture their finger print from 10th July 2018 to 16th July 2018,

will also be informed through SMS when to print their Call-up letters to proceed to Orientation Camp, come 24th July, 2018.

Part-time graduates that are yet to register including the newly uploaded ones are to do so, from 10th July 2018 to 16th July 2018.


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Sunday, 8 July 2018

WAEC Release 2018 May/JuneResult (Statistics)

Waec release 2018 May/June Result about 786,016 candidates representing 49.98% obtained credits and above in a minimum of five subjects including English Language and Mathematics. See statistics below 
Announcing the release of the results at the National office of the council in Lagos, the head of Nigeria Office, Mr. Olu Adenipekun disclosed that. 786,016 candidates representing 49.98% obtained credits and above in a minimum of five subjects including English Language and Mathematics.
It was gathered that a total of 1,578,846 candidates registered for the examination from 17,886 recognised secondary schools in Nigeria. Out of the registered candidates, 1,572,396 candidates sat the examination.

Out of the number that sat for the exam in Nigeria, 1,470,338 candidates, representing 93.51% have their results fully processed and released. The Certificates of such candidates will be ready in 90 days from today.
102,058 candidates representing 6.49% have a few of their subjects still being processed due to errors traceable to the candidates in the course of registration or writing the examination.

A further break down of the results shows that 1,213,244 candidates representing 76.84% obtained credits and above in a minimum of any five subjects (i.e with or without English Language and/or Mathematics.)

“858,424 candidates representing 54.59% obtained credits and above in a minimum of five subjects including English Language but without Mathematics.

“786,016 candidates representing 49.98% obtained credits and above in the minimum of five subjects including English Language and Mathematics.

“In this category were 389,655 male and 396,361 female, representing 47.32% and 52.92% respectively. ”

Candidates can proceed to WAEC’s official website Waec result checker to check their results using the result checker pin and serial number contained on their smart identity card used during the conduct of the examination. 
Or you can as well drop your details in comment section so we can help you check your result and send it to your email. 
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Ss1 Student Construct A Moving Car

SS1 student of Anglican Grammer school Ogbomoso, Oyo State in Nigeria, who constructed a moving car with bathroom slippers and broomsticks funny but it just a pathway for the boy

guess what? the car has light all over it’s body, wait for it, this young man also developed a power bank to power the car.
SS1 student Constructs moving a car.
What an Engineer in the making, see his construction below….

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