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Tuesday, 5 December 2017

The Republican Constitution of 1963

The Republican Constitution of 1963 was essentially the 1960 independence constitution rewritten with some minor modifications, and it came into operation on the 1st of October, 1963. It was in a bid to change the dominance of external affairs of Nigeria by Britain that a new constitution call the Republican Constitution of 1963 was proposed and adopted in 1963. With is constitution, the Queen ceased to be the Head of state and the executive function of the various units of the federation was no longer vested on her. She was also no longer a part of the legislative house of the federation.
  Under the new constitution, an elected president was substituted for the Queen as the Head of State. The judicial Service Commission was abolished and the president was empowered to appoint judges of the Supreme Court and those of the High Court of Lagos on the advice of the prime minister.
Thus, the Supreme Court now became the final court of appeal in Nigeria. The power to declare any federal or regional law unconstitutional if it is inconsistent with any provision of the constitution (judicial review) was granted to the Federal Supreme Court.
   The emergency powers were also conferred on the federal government to declare state of emergency on any part of the country whenever there was war or serious crisis. Again, the constitution stipulated the procedure for the creation of new regions and the adjustment in the existing regional boundaries. It was in line with this procedure that the-Mid-western region was created in August, 1963.

Features of the Republican Constitution of 1963

  1. The President of the Senate acted as president in the absence of the president of the federal republic of Nigeria.
  2. The membership of the senate was increased from 44 to 56.
  3. The fundamental human rights of citizens were entrenched in the constitution.
  4. The act that established the constitution was passed by the Nigerian parliament.
  5. The Queen of England ceased to be the constitutional Head of state. 
  6. The president was the Commander-in-Chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces.
  7. The president was empowered to appoint, transfer, promote and discipline judges on the recommendation of  the Prime Minister.


  • The imperial basis of the Nigerian constitution was abolished.
  • The constitution was enacted by the Act of Nigerian Federal Parliament of 1963 which repealed the Nigerian Independence Act of 1960.
  • It made the supreme court the highest court of appeal in Nigeria.


  • It placed Nigeria under strong influenced of Britain, by allowing it to be a member of British Commonwealth.
  • The constitution created difficulties in creating new states, thereby making one of the regions to be larger than the three (3) others put together.

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Sunday, 3 December 2017

Relationships Of Organisms In An Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a basic functioning unit of nation. It is made up of living organisms and their non-living environment. Both components, not only interact among themselves, but are also linked by a variety of biological, chemical and physical processes. We shall now study relationships of organisms in an ecosystem which result in the ecosystem being a functioning unit.

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
The basic component of an ecosystem is made up of all the living organisms in it. These organisms are divided into two main groups according to the way they feed; autotrophs and heterotrophs.


Autotrophs are organisms that are able to use sunlight or chemical energy to manufacture their own food from simple inorganic substances.
   Autotrophs extract inorganic nutrients and chemical energy from their non-living environment, that is from the abiotic  component of the ecosystem. Sunlight, the main energy source used by autotrophs, is obtained from the sun which is outside the ecosystem. By being able to use sunlight, these autootrophs forms a direct link between abiotic and biotic components of an ecoosystem. Since autotrophs are the only oorganisms that can produce food in an ecosystem, they are also known as primary food producers.
        Autotrophs use some food they produce for their activities and building their body tissues (growth). The rest is stored in various parts of their bodies.
       Autotrophs include all green plants, photosynthetic protists and some bacteria. In a terrestrial ecosystem, the main food producers are green plants especially flowering plants such as maize, rice, yam and pawpaw. In an aquatic ecosystem, however, the main food producers are protists like diatoms and algae like spirogyra, often referred to as the phytoplankton. 


Heterotrophs cannot manufacture food. They feed on ready-made food which comes from the tissues of organisms in their environment, that is from biotic component of the ecosystem. This food is produced either directly or indirectly by autotrophs. Thus all heterotrophs depend ultimately on autotrophs for food.
   Heterotrophs use the nutrients and chemical energy stored in the food they feed on for their activities and building up their body tissues (growth). Excess nutrients and energy are often stored in various parts of their bodies.
Heterotrophs include all animals, carnivorous plants, fungi, and most protists and bacteria. In an ecosystem, heterotrophs maybe consumers or decomposers. Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on other organisms. They include
  • all holozoic organisms such as herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and scavengers; and
  • parasites.
Some examples of consumers in a terrestrial ecosystem are caterpillars, cows, dogs, lions, toads, hawks and vipers. The consumers in an aquatic habitat include cope pods, water fleas, tadpoles, larvae of insects and fishes.

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