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Saturday, 11 August 2018

History Of Commonwealth

THE ORIGIN OF THE COMMONWEALTH
To understand what is meant by the term "Commonwealth" - that is, the association of nations which retain a close connexion with the United Kingdom and whose prime ministers meet together frequently to discuss matters of common interest - we must go back to the beginning of the twentieth century.
    At this time the United Kingdom was still an imperial Power, but many of her colonies had during the nineteenth century achieved constitutional advance to the stage known as 'representative government'. That is, they had popularly elected legislatures, and the Governor, who was the King's representative in the colony and responsible to the British Secretary of State for the Colonies for the goof government thereof, was required to appoint Ministers who commanded the confidence of the Legislature, and govern through them. These colonies were not, however, independent, because the Governor could still refuse to assent to a Bill passed by the legislature, and thus prevent it becoming law. What is more, a colony at this stage only managed its own internal affairs. It could not make treaties with other nations, because foreign affairs were still managed for it by British Government.

    From 1907, it became customary for the ministers of these colonies with representative government to have regular meetings (known as Imperial Conferences) in London to discuss matters of interest to all of them, including relations with foreign countries; and the British Government never did anything affecting them without their consent. By the 1920s, the United Kingdom had ceased to manage their foreign affairs, and they were known as Dominions rather than colonies. It had become recognized that the Governor (or Governor-General as he was by then called) was simply the personal representative of the king in the Dominion and had ceased to exercise governmental authority - just as the king himself had ceased to do so in Britain. In other words, they had become independent in all but name.
   In 1926, the relations between the United Kingdom and the various Dominions were defined at Imperial Conference of that year in a formula laid down by a committee under the chairmanship of Lord Balfour in the following terms :
They are autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though United by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations 

  The only factors which stood between the Dominions and full independence were the power of the United Kingdom Parliament to make laws for them, and their own inability to amend or repeal United Kingdom laws applying to them. To remove these obstacles Parliament in 1931 enacted the statute of Westminster, which removed virtually all restriction on Dominions' powers to legislate, and laid down that no future laws enacted by Parliament would have effect in a Dominion unless that Dominion so consented. This meant, among other things, that if there were to be any changes in the rules of succession to the Throne of the United Kingdom, they would henceforth have to be brought into effect by simultaneous legislation in all parliament of the Dominions. The Throne belonged to all Dominions, so their laws on succession had to be uniform.

The Statute of Westminster was in effect the charter of Dominion independence, though not every Dominion chose to avail itself of its freedom. To this day, certain parts of the Canadian Constitution cam only be amended by the United Kingdom Parliament; of course, this limitation has only remained in force at the wish of Canada. But although independent, each Dominion retained the king as its own King. Since he could not be present in all these countries he was represented in each by a Governor-General. But the Governor-General acted entirely on the advice of the ministers of the Dominion just as the king himself acted, in all respects, on the advice of his ministers in London. Indeed the Governor-General himself was appointed by the king on the advise of the Prime Minister of the Dominion. The United Kingdom and the Dominions continued to be styled the British Commonwealth of Nations, as originally named in the report of the Balfour Committee, and their Prime Ministers continued meeting regularly as before. The fact that they all owed allegiance to the same King and were British subjects was one of the major factors which maintained a close union between countries.
   The countries forming the original British Commonwealth of Nations were Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and Ireland; of these land cease to be a member in 1949 and South Africa in 1961.
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Saturday, 28 July 2018

The Fence By Lenrie Peters

The poem is based on the proverbial concept of "fence sitting". "Fence sitting" means a state of indecision or dilemma. The poem is an apt description of persons who sit on the fence, thus they are unable to take decisions on vital issues that happens around them. They are neither here or there.

1. In the first stanza of the poem, the poet says that he lies at the meeting point between the dim past and indistinct future. The hopes and aspirations of the past and the future are hazy, vague, bleak, blurred and indistinct. The poet is neither with the past nor, the future. This makes him to be on a fence.

2. In the second stanza, the poet presents himself in a situation where the truth and untruth struggles in an endless battle of supremacy that is the poet cannot be identified with those who say the truth or lies. He is on the fence. 

3. In the third stanza, the poet opines that he is in a place where time moves forward and backward. This oscillating movement of time does not give the poet time to pause (sigh) and rest so that he can brood on his pathetic situation which is characterized by sadness, tiredness and disappointment.

4. In the last stanza (7th), the poet says that he is in a place where the need for good and doing good are in a constant disagreement. Need for good are things which the humans needs to have a just, virile and egalitarian society.

Poetic Devices Used In The Fence 

Repetition, personification, alliteration, anthesis, and symbolism. 
* Repetition ;
(I) my head goes round and round
(ii) "There I lie" is repeated in lines three, six, nine, twelve, twenty-two and twenty-five. 

* Personification ;
(I) There were truth and untruth struggle 
(ii) It seems the world has changed her garment 
(III) There where time moves forward and backward. 

* Antithesis ;
(I) There where the truth and untruth  struggle
(ii) There where the dim past and future mingle
(III) There where the time moves forward and backward. 

* Alliteration ;
(I) There where the difference past and future mingle 
(ii) I hold my head; and then contrive. 

The poem is based on the proverbial concept of "fence sitting".

STRUCTURE OF THE FENCE 
The poem has twenty-five (25) lines. The first, second, third, fourth, sixth and seventh stanzas has three (3) lines. While the fifth stanza has eight (8) lines. The poem was written in a free verse. 

The major theme in the poem is indecision the poet is in dilemma, he finds himself in a situation where he cannot choose between two opposite things that border on moral and psychological decisions. 
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Friday, 27 July 2018

Rule Of Law

The rule of law means the law pre-eminent and superior to the rule of any human leader. It presupposes that the law is above any individual in the system and should be obeyed by all. It is a principle of governance in which all persons including the state itself are all accountable and answerable to laws of the land which are consistent with international human rights norms and standards. The rule of law holds that the law must be prospective, well-known, and have characteristic of generality, equity and certainty. Under the rule of law, the law is pre-eminent and can serve as a check against the abuse of power.
     The rule of law has been considered as one of the key dimension that determine the quality and good governance of a country. When a political leader takes the oath of office, they affirm that the rule of law is superior to the rule of any human leader. They then set up measures to ensure adherence to the principles of supremacy.
         The rule of law implies rights and freedoms; it implies an independent judiciary and social, economic and cultural conditions conducive to human dignity. Credit for popularizing the expression "the rule of law" in modern times is usually given to the popular British Jurist, Professor A.V. Dicey. In 1885, he formulated the three interpretations of the rule of law in his book entitled "Introduction to the Law of the Constitution", as:
(i) The supremacy of the law
(ii) Equality before the law
(iii) Fundamental human right of the individuals.

A. The Supremacy of the Law: This aspect explains that nobody should be punished or subjected to any degrading or crime treatment or punishment except for a breach of law proven in an ordinary court. A person is presumed innocent and subjected to fair and public trial without undue delay until pronounced guilty by ordinary court devoid of secret trials. This also entails that the law is above every citizen and should not be used to oppress the weak and the minorities by the government and their agents.

B. Equality Before the Law: This entails that no one is above the law of the land. There should be equal access to the law legal process; and a rational and propotionate approach to punishment. This recommends fairness and equal access to justice, rights and freedoms. Nobody is above the other under the law. The law binding governor and a president is also binding ordinary citizens and if they break the law; they should be subjected to the same fair trial and punishment if found guilty by the law courts.

C. Fundamental Liberty of the Individuals: 

This entails that the judicial decisions are binding and courts should have the power of judicial review over the way in which the other principles are implemented. It implies that the rule of law includes the results of judicial decisions determining the rights of private persons which are alienable. These rights of citizens should be adequately safeguarded and protected by strong and independent judiciary. The fundamental rights of citizens are :
  • Right to life
  • Right to freedom of expression
  • Right to work 
  • Right to vote and be voted for 
  • Right to freedom of association 
  • Right to education 
  • Right to social security, etc. 

Importance of Rule of Law

(I) The rule of law helps to institute social justice in the society. It develops social, economic an cultural conditions conducive to human dignity. That is why it is regarded as the foundation of a civilized society. 
(ii) The rule of law prevents tyranny and bad governance. It prevents the government and their agents from infringing on the rights and freedom of ordinary citizens. 
(III) The rule of law protects the rights and freedom of citizens; most especially the minorities in a Democratic system. It allow for equity and fair treatment of citizens irrespective of their status. 
(IV) It promotes accountability of the government to the law and to the people upon whom political sovereignty resides. 
(V) It promotes political participation as against political apathy of the citizens. 
(VI) The rule of law strengthens democracy. It protects democracy and serve as the foundation. 

PROBLEMS OF THE RULE OF LAW
There are some problems that may stand as impediment to the smooth application of the rule of law. Some of them are as follows:
  • Under international law; ambassador and high commissioners are not subject to punishment under the law of the country where they reside when they disobey the law. This is because they enjoy diplomatic immunity. They can only be repatriated to their country. 
  • When there is a civil unrest, the government may call for a state of emergency where all Democratic structures will be suspended pro-tem-pore. 
  • Also, a mentally deranged person who is unable cannot be allowed to stand trial. 
  • In Nigeria, the chief executives, that is, the president and the state governors as well as legislators and judges enjoys immunity under the law. 
  • Another problem of the rule of is the use of special courts, for example, tribunals etc. To handle cases which may in turn pervert justice. 
  • The rule of law cannot be upheld in a system where there is no democratic government. 
  • The rights of the citizen is limited by the respect for the rights of the other citizens for example, citizens have freedom of expression, but they are not allowed under the law to say things that may affect the dignity and personality of other citizens. 

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Wednesday, 11 July 2018

NYSC Update

Prospective Corps Members who are yet to register on the NYSC portal including the newly uploaded graduates your Registration starts from 10th July 2018 to 16th July 2018.

Prospective Corps Members who were mobilised in 2018 Batch “A” and were issued Call-up Numbers but were informed that their Orientation will be in July 2018, are not to register again or revalidate on the portal.

Prospective Corps Members who were mobilised in 2018 Batch “A” and were issued Call-up Numbers but were informed that their Orientation will be in July 2018, are not to register again or revalidate on the portal.

Instead you are to go to the Orientation Camp on the 24th July 2018. You will be informed when to print your Call-up Letter through SMS.

Those who submitted applications for dropping of Biometrics during 2018 Batch “A” Camp Verification should login to their dashboard and re-capture their finger print from 10th July 2018 to 16th July 2018,

will also be informed through SMS when to print their Call-up letters to proceed to Orientation Camp, come 24th July, 2018.

Part-time graduates that are yet to register including the newly uploaded ones are to do so, from 10th July 2018 to 16th July 2018.


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Sunday, 8 July 2018

WAEC Release 2018 May/JuneResult (Statistics)

Waec release 2018 May/June Result about 786,016 candidates representing 49.98% obtained credits and above in a minimum of five subjects including English Language and Mathematics. See statistics below 
Announcing the release of the results at the National office of the council in Lagos, the head of Nigeria Office, Mr. Olu Adenipekun disclosed that. 786,016 candidates representing 49.98% obtained credits and above in a minimum of five subjects including English Language and Mathematics.
It was gathered that a total of 1,578,846 candidates registered for the examination from 17,886 recognised secondary schools in Nigeria. Out of the registered candidates, 1,572,396 candidates sat the examination.

Out of the number that sat for the exam in Nigeria, 1,470,338 candidates, representing 93.51% have their results fully processed and released. The Certificates of such candidates will be ready in 90 days from today.
102,058 candidates representing 6.49% have a few of their subjects still being processed due to errors traceable to the candidates in the course of registration or writing the examination.

A further break down of the results shows that 1,213,244 candidates representing 76.84% obtained credits and above in a minimum of any five subjects (i.e with or without English Language and/or Mathematics.)

“858,424 candidates representing 54.59% obtained credits and above in a minimum of five subjects including English Language but without Mathematics.

“786,016 candidates representing 49.98% obtained credits and above in the minimum of five subjects including English Language and Mathematics.

“In this category were 389,655 male and 396,361 female, representing 47.32% and 52.92% respectively. ”

Candidates can proceed to WAEC’s official website Waec result checker to check their results using the result checker pin and serial number contained on their smart identity card used during the conduct of the examination. 
Or you can as well drop your details in comment section so we can help you check your result and send it to your email. 
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Ss1 Student Construct A Moving Car

SS1 student of Anglican Grammer school Ogbomoso, Oyo State in Nigeria, who constructed a moving car with bathroom slippers and broomsticks funny but it just a pathway for the boy

guess what? the car has light all over it’s body, wait for it, this young man also developed a power bank to power the car.
SS1 student Constructs moving a car.
What an Engineer in the making, see his construction below….

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Monday, 2 July 2018

8 Year old boy graduate from High School

A Belgian boy has graduated from high school at the age of 8 after completing six years of study in about 18 months.
And Laurent Simons’ next step is university — after a two-month holiday.
The brainy Belgian has an IQ of 145, according to his parents, and collected his high school diploma alongside 18-year-olds.
Laurent told Belgium’s RTBF radio that his favourite subject was maths.
He has considered pursuing a career as a surgeon, astronaut, or working with computers — but his parents are not worried either way, the BBC reported.
“If he decided tomorrow to become a carpenter, that would not be a problem for us, as long as he is happy,” his father said.
If Laurent does indeed take up work with computers, he will not be the first young prodigy to employ his talents in the field.
Canadian teen Tanmay Bakshi landed a job at IBM working on artificial intelligence at age 13.
As of last year, he also commanded more than 20,000 subscribers on his YouTube channel featuring lessons on how to code.
Australian 11-year-old artist Aelita Andre also enjoyed early success, with her paintings fetching up to $50,000 and earning comparisons with works by Jackson Pollock.
Earlier this year, Melbourne violinist Christian Li, 10, became the youngest winner of one of the world’s most prestigious music competitions, the Yehudi Menuhin International.
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Sunday, 1 July 2018

The Theory Of Consumer Behaviour — Economics

Concept Of Utility 

The capacity of a good to give satisfaction is called "utility". In other words, utility is the satisfaction which a consumer derives from using a commodity or service at any particular time. 
  The economic meaning of utility should be distinguished from the meaning given to it by the man in the street. The ordinary meaning of utility is "usefulness". To the economist, the "usefulness" of anything is a matter of opinion, or subjective, and it is important in the sense expressed in the following example. 
    Many people say that the Nigerian-made hot drink, variously called "ekpeteshi", "aka mere", "ogogoro" is useless and does not possess any utility. This reasoning is faulty as far as the economist is concerned. The truth is that the hot drink satisfies a human want and, therefore, possesses utility or is useful. 
      Another thing to note about the definition of utility is that it relates to something at a particular time. The utility of anything is never fixes. The utility of a yam tuber, for example, will be more to a hungry man than to a man who has just finished taking a meal consisting of yam. 
   Utility, therefore, is difficult, if not impossible, to measure quantitatively, "it is", as someone has tried to describe it, "a mental state that refers to the amount of satisfaction the consumer estimates to have from the consumption of any commodity, ". 
   To understand the real meaning of utility, hence, is not easy. However, we can compare the utility of one commodity with that of another. 

Average Utility 

Average utility is the amount of satisfaction derived by a consumer per unit of a commodity consumed. 
   Average utility is derived by dividing the total utility by the number of units of the commodity consumed. 

CONCEPT OF MARGIN 

"Margin" is a very important concept in economists. The living Webster encyclopedic Dictionary of English language defines the word "Margin" as "border of edge, a limit, or a condition beyond which something ceases to exist or be possible". The margin, in economics, means the boundary or borderline separating the purchases that are worth while from those that are not. 
       It is at the margin that we make a choice among alternatives. Our consumption of any commodity is determined by the decision we make at the margin. Suppose you already have five books on economics and you are contemplating the purchase of a sixth. The contemplated sixth book is known as your marginal volume. Your decision to purchase the book will depend on the additional gain you feel you will get from it and also on the other alternative choices that are open to you to spend your money. In other words, you are considering the marginal worth of the sixth book to you. When you have arrived at this stage, we say that you are on the "margin of consumption". 

Practical Importance of Marginal Analysis 
We have already noted that the margin is very important concept in economics. A very important concept in economics. 
It is at the margin that choices are made. This marginal analysis enables consumers to get the most out of their scarce resources. It helps buyers, who are sometimes in doubt of what to buy, who are sometimes in doubt of what to buy, or whether to buy a little more or less of a commodity, to make a decision. 
   People make marginal decisions daily. It is at the margin that a person decides what to buy, and it is his decision that determines the quantity of the good that is purchased and it's price in the market. In other words, it is at the margin that the purchaser weighs the prices of various goods in the market and adjust his budget to meet his various needs. 
    The most important concepts derived from this marginal approach are : Marginal utility, Marginal revenue, Marginal cost and Marginal product. Marginal cost is the cost of one further unit purchased of a commodity. 
     Marginal revenue is the additional revenue to the total revenue arising from the sale of an additional product. Marginal product is the additional or last unit of the product to be produced or turned out. Marginal utility is the utility or satisfaction received from consuming one more unit of a good or services 
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Agricultural Marketing

Agricultural Marketing involves a series of business activities or services associated with the transfer of agricultural commodities from the producers or farmers to the consumers. It is concerned with the movement of livestock and crops from thousands of scattered small-size farm where they are produced to the thousands of consumers located in rural and urban centres. Agricultural marketing includes the selling of farm inputs to farmers or the purchasing of farm inputs such as fertilizers, seeds, chemicals, implementation and the disposal of agricultural commodities to the final consumers or users.
   Marketing is a process, a function or an act of selling and thereby settling prices through the forces of supply and demand for that commodity. It involves all stages of operation which helps to move products from the farms to the ultimate consumers. These stages include assembling, preparation, grading, processing, packaging, storage, transportation, distribution, publicity and selling of products.

Stages/Functions involved in agricultural marketing 

   Marketing involves different stages. These stages are also referred to as marketing functions or services which are performed by the agricultural market agents or system. The stages or functions include:
1. Assembling 
2. Grading/sorting 
3. Processing 
4. Packaging 
5. Storage/Warehousing 
6. Transportation 
7. Advertisement and publicity 
8. Distribution 
9. Merchandizing/Pricing 

1. Assembling
This involves collecting farm products from different farmers so that they will be available in large quantities to attract buyers. This function can be performed by the farmer himself, an itinerant buyer or by a local market place. 

2. Grading/Sorting
It involves separating product using specifications or standard grading is needed to maintain high quality, enable good pricing policies and to promote exports. Some factors considered during grading include evenness of size, shape and quality, condition, purity, flavor and freedom from pest and diseases. This function of grading can be performed by the farmer, marketing organization or board and the wholesaler or retailer. 

3. Processing 
This involves changing the original form of the farm commodity to a more acceptable form to the consumer. Many farm products are processed before they are consumed. For example, cassava tubers are processed to garri, fruit and vegetables may be canned, seed cotton is ginned and spun into yarn. Processing increases the utility of most farm products. It also increases their value and price. The processing function can be performed by the farmers and the processors. 

4. Packaging 
This function involves putting farm products in small parcels or bundles. This makes some products such as eggs and sugar easier to handle. It also helps to compact others such as tobacco and cotton, by pressing them into bales. Packaging saves storage space and transport costs. It helps to keep products clean and protect them from damage at the same time adding value. Packaging can be performed by the farmer, processor, and other marketing agents such as the wholesalers. 

5. Storage/Warehousing 
   This involves keeping farm commodities for future use. The consumers demand for farm products very little throughout the year, but most farm production is seasonal. Storage or ware housing is necessary to make the product available throughout the year. Storage of farm produce can be done by the farmer or middleman. 

6. Transportation 
     This involves carrying of farm commodities from one place to another. All surplus farm produce needs some transport to the market place
This service can be provided by the farmer or middlemen. Where the roads are poor, transport cost is usually very high. This affects both the consumer and producer prices. 

7. Advertisement/Publicity
   It is concerned with making the existence of a farm product known to people. This is very important before products are distributed to stimulate or create demand. The creation of awareness for a product and stimulating demand is the task of advertising and other promotional activities. This is very useful to farmers selling uncontrolled products on the free market. The newspapers, electronic media like radio/television, farming press, sales literature, agricultural shows and trade fairs can be used to advertise farm commodities. 

8. Distribution 
        Distribution is concerned with sending or spreading out farm commodities from production area to individuals and places where they are needed. Traders, wholesalers and retailers help in the distribution network. 

9. Merchandising/Pricing 
     This involves buying and selling of farm commodities, through the negotiation of prices that are paid by buyers or received by sellers. 

Importance of Agricultural Marketing 

    The marketing of agricultural products has aimed great importance with movement from subsistence to commercial agriculture. This is because of the fact that excess production from the farms must be disposed off in order to earn income with which the farmers can purchase other goods and services not produced by them. Agricultural marketing is therefore making great contributions to the economic development of most developing countries such as Nigeria and Ghana. Specifically, the importance or contribution of Agricultural marketing in the economic development of the country include :
  1. Marketing makes it possible for farm products from farmers scattered in different places to reach the consumers in the farm, place and time they wanted. 
  2. Efficient marketing system location where there are surplus of farm produce and bring them to where there are shortages. 
  3. It is often time consuming for small farmers to take their surplus to a market place. Therefore, a middleman, a store keeper or itinerant trader buys from many farmers and sells to a marketing organization or directly to consumers. 
  4. An efficient marketing system gives farmers higher prices but also gives consumers lower ones and thus expand their buying power. 
  5. Marketing conditions influence the production of goods and services. This is because consumers show preference for products through the prices they are prepared to pay. This affects production decisions of farmers as they are most likely to produce commodities which are of high demand. 
  6. Production and marketing are often regarded as an integrated whole. This is due to the fact that an efficient marketing system ensures that agricultural inputs or resources are allocated efficiently. It means that farmers are most likely to shift resources from production of farm commodities having low demand and prices to the production of those commodities with high demand and prices. 
  7. Agricultural marketing provides employment for people who perform the different marketing functions such as assemblage, grading, transportation and others. 
  8. The need to improve the marketing of farm commodities creates incentives for government to development to develop infrastructure such as roads, water, storage facilities and others in rural areas to achieve market efficiency. 
  9. Marketing helps to stimulate research into the techniques of preserving agricultural products and the preparation of commodities to meet the different taste of consumers. 
  10. Agricultural marketing creates the multiplier effect in the economy for example, industries will develop to produce package materials for product and pee would be employed to be able to meet the demand. 
  11. The efficient marketing system ensures that products that are seasonal become available throughout the year with little price variation that can be attributed to the cost of storage function. 

 Agricultural Marketing Agents 

Agricultural marketing agents are the institution, organization individuals that carry out or perform marketing functions and offer marketing services. Agents involved in the marketing of farm commodities includes :
  • Marketing/Commodity boards
  • Cooperative societies 
  • Wholesalers 
  • Middlemen 
  • Retailers
  • Producers/Farmers/Manufacturers. 

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Sunday, 24 June 2018

Cells And Its Environment

Living cells are always surrounded by a watery environment. This may be the freshwater or salt water in which unicellular organisms live; or the intercellular fluid that bathes the body cells of higher animals.
Materials flow between the cell and its environment mainly by diffusion and osmosis. Let us see how these processes occur and how changes in its environment can affect the living cell.

Nature of Matter and States of Matter

Diffusion and osmosis are possible because of the nature of matter. We can define matter as anything that has mass and occupies space. It includes all the living and non-living things around us. 
   Matter is made up of tiny particles which may be molecules or ions. These particles are moving all the time. Matter can exist in three states: as a solid, a liquid and a gas. 
     In solid, the particles are closely packed with very little space between them. The forces of attraction between the particles are strong so that they cannot move around but vibrate in fixed positions. In a liquid, the particles are not so closely packed together. They can move around but they are still attracted to one another so that their movements are within a given space. In a gas, the particles move very fast. They are widely separated from one another and there is very little attraction between the them. Thus, the basic difference between the three states of matter is the degree of movement of their particles. 
  Any substance can exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas under the appropriate conditions of temperature and pressure. A familiar example of such a substance is water. A normal pressure (760 mmHg), pure water exists as the solid ice, below 0°C. On heating, the molecules in ice vibrate faster and break away from their fixed positions to move about, that is ice melt to form liquid water. Water exists as a liquid between 0°C and 100°C. On further heating, the molecules in water move about even faster, collide with one another, and eventually escape from the liquid to form water vapor (gas). We can reverse the above process by cooling water vapor.

Cells and Osmosis

A living cell is bound by a plasma membrane. This membrane is selectively permeable and allows water and certain solute molecules and ions pass through it. As a result, the plasma membrane regulates the movement of materials between the cell and its environment. In contrast, a semi-permeable membrane only allows water molecules to pass through it. 

Osmosis in animal cells : Animal cells contain mainly cytoplasm and cell organelles. In higher animals, the cells are bathed in intercellular fluid or plasma. The concentration of the solutes in these fluids is important for the well-being and functioning of the cells. 
   A living cell may find itself in any one of the following situations:
  • The fluid surrounding the cell is more concentrated than the inside of the cell. In the case, the surrounding fluid is said to be hypertomic to the contents of the cell. There is a net movement of water molecules out of the cell into the surrounding. This is known as exosmosis. It causes the cell to shrink. 
  • The fluid surrounding the cell is less concentrated than the inside of the cell. Here, the surrounding fluid is said to be hypotomic to the contents of the cell. There is a net movement of water molecules from the surrounding fluid into the cell. This is known as endosmosis. It causes the cell to swell, and eventually rupture. 
  • The surrounding fluid and the cell content have the same concentration. Hence, they are said to be isotomic. There is no net movement of water molecules in or out of the cell. 
   To survive and function well, the living cell and the fluid that bathes it must be isotonic or be able to maintain an osmotic balance. Endosmosis and exosmosis can lead to the eventual death of an animal.

Osmosis in plant cells : plant cells have cell membrane and cell walls. The cell wall is a tough and fairly elastic structure that is freely permeable to all molecules and ions. The cell membrane, however, is selectively permeable. 
Unlike an animal, most of the space in a plant cell is occupied by a large central backup that contains cell sap. It has a high concentration and tends to draw in water into the cell from the surroundings by osmosis.
      When endosmosis occurs, water flows into the vacuole of a plant cell, causing the cell to swell. The cell, however, does not rupture because, although the cell wall stretches to a certain extent, it is tough and does not break. It also prevents the cell membrane from expanding. A high pressure builds up inside the cell and makes it turgid.
    When exosmosis occurs, water flows out of the vacuole of the plant cell into the surroundings. As a result, the vacuole shrinks and eventually pulls the cytoplasm from the cell wall.
This process is known as plasmolysis.
        Turgidity is important in land plants. It make the plant form and gives support, especially to herbaceous plants. If plant cells are not turgid, the plant will wilt. The plant will easily recover if it supplied with water. However, if water is not supplied, the plant will die when all its cells becomes plasmolysed. 
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Monday, 18 June 2018

Values (Civic Education)

A value is a belief, a mission, or a philosophy that is meaningful. They are an integral part of every society which influences the behavior and culture of a people or community. Values are important as they are related to the norms of a society, and so they guide the conducts of individuals, groups, or the entire community.
  Values lay the foundation of law, customs and traditions and enable members of a community to solve common human problems for survival.
The values of a society permit social expectations and collective understanding of what is good, beautiful and constructive. We can also say that values dictate the belief system of people and reflect in their ways of life (culture) thereby, shoeing their identity.
Values also reflect a person's sense of judgement whether right it wrong and help him or her to choose how to behave in every situation. Whether we are consciously aware of then or not, every individual has a core set of personal values and these values motivate us to move our lives in certain directions. Those who value their individuality take responsibility, are self-reliant and act with self respect. Those who value truthfulness cannot tell a lie. Those who value family or friendship sacrifice their personal interests for the good of others, etc. We express our values in our relations with other people when we are loyal, reliable, honest, generous, trusting, trustworthy, feel a sense if responsibility for family, friends, co-workers, our organization, community or country, etc.
   Also, our values can be the belief in hard work and punctuality, self-reliance, concern for others, cooperation, integration, team work, selflessness, tolerance, respect for others, justice, etc. These personal valued influence a person's attitude and behavior; and determines what one wants and in what order he or she wants them.
      Personal values, that groups of people find important in their day-to-day lives, lay the foundation of societal values. Personal values in this way exist in relation to cultural or societal values.
Valued are also manifested at the level of society. Different cultures makes up the different societies and each culture has values that are largely shared by their members. The values of a society are related to the norms of that society. They identify what should be judged as good or evil.
A value is a belief, a mission, or a philosophy that is meaningful. They are an integral part of every society which influences the behavior and culture of a people or community. Values are important as they are related to the norms of a society, and so they guide the conducts of individuals, groups, or the entire community.

Cultural values determine and regulate how people interact and what they do with the resources around them. These values give the people an identity as a group and stand as their moral conducts and responsibilities. Group members who express serious conflict with the group's norms are encouraged to conform or stigmatised for non-conformity.
   Values are obtained in many different ways. The most important place for building values is the family. The family is responsible for teaching children what is right and wrong before they come across other influences. As a child starts schooling, the school helps to shape the values of children. The religion a child is introduced to also plays an important role of teaching the right and wrong behaviors.

TYPES OF VALUES

There are different types of values. They include honesty, selflessness, cooperation, self-reliance, integrity, contentment, discipline, courage, right attitude to work, etc. All of these except justice and selflessness have been discussed in the Junior Secondary Books 1-3.
(A) Justice
Justice refers to fairness in the wat people are treated. It is a value which every individual, group or organization must posses. Justice is a concept of moral rightness based on reasoning, law, natural law, religion or equity. It id the quality of being just, and confirming to the principles of righteousness in all things. When someone is said to be just, he/she treats people equally, rewards and punishes accordingly. The virtue of justice guides people and enables interactions among them to go smoothly.
   Some people seek justice not only in the things that affect them but for the fair treatment of everyone, even strangers. They confront injustice whenever and wherever it appears. Apathy is the greatest hindrance to justice. Justice is best adhered to in a democratic system where the rule if law is in operation and the citizens are law abiding.

Types of Justice
There are different types of justice. We shall consider three of the types of justice they are :
(i) Social justice
(ii) Organizational Justice
(iii) Distributive Justice

How to Develop the Value of Justice 

To be a just man or woman, you must develop knowledge of the rights and responsibilities that govern your family, community and nation. This knowledge is developed during interactions with people and begins at a very early stage of our life. Examples are apologizing to those you hurt, paying back what you have destroyed or damaged, keeping to promises made and apologizing if you fail to keep such promises, treating others fairly etc.

(B) Selflessness
Selflessness refers to caring about other people more than yourself. It is an act of sacrificing one's own interest for the greater good of others. It involves the attitude of working and assisting others without expecting any reward or gain. A selfless person is concerned greatly with the welfare of others.
  If we give help to others, but expect recognition or the favour to be returned, then it is not a selfless action. True selflessness means we would do the action, even if it was never known to anyone else. Selflessness also means the attitude of identifying with others. Our service to others should not show feelings of superiority, as though it is below one's dignity but should be motivated by a feeling of oneness. We must help others because we identify with their problems and sufferings. The opposite of selflessness is selfishness.

(C) Involvement in Community Services

Meaning of Community Service and Community Development 

Community service is volunteered service or activity that is performed by a person, group or organization for the benefit of the public without any compensation. However, there are some people who provide community services and receive some form of compensation in return. A community service that is rendered as a selfless activity is a type of value that is expected of any individual, group or organisation. This values helps the community to develop.
   Community development is associated with community work or community planning. This is conducted by government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other corporate bodies for the progress of the social well-being of people in the local, state and national communities.
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Wednesday, 6 June 2018

Nigeria As A Federation

THE ORIGIN OF THE FEDERAL SYSTEM 

Nigeria has been called 'Federal' since 1954 because in that year it became a Federation. A Federation originally meant a group of neighbouring countries who agreed to unite together as one country and set up a single government to rule the whole; but those countries, since they did not want to lose their separateness, retained their own original government's and only handed over to the new government certain powers. The new Government, which would be called the Federal Government, might therefore control railways, main trunk roads, postal services, the Army, and other matters which it would be an advantage to have managed on a national level. It would also speak for the whole country in its relations with other nations. These powers would be surrendered by the government of the former countries, known as States; but all powers not so surrendered would remain with the states.
   The word 'federation' comes rom the Latin word foedus meaning a treaty or agreement, hence foedratio, meaning a union of states based upon a treaty or agreement. This is how the United States of America, and several other countries, came into being.

NIGERIAN FEDERALISM


The word Federation comes from the Latin word foedus meaning

Nigeria is different in that it became a Federation after having been a single country with one government. But the system of government prior to 1966 was the same. We had a Federal Parliament, which could make laws for the whole country but only on certain specified matters, which were listed in the Constitution of the Federation : similarly, the Federal Executive ( that is the Council of Ministries) could only control matters included in the lists. Firstly there was a lengthy list of subjects which could only be controlled by the Federation and with which the Regions had no concern. This included the Army, the Nigeria Police, the Postal Service, Railway, main trunk roads, airports, sea ports, mining, banks, customs and excise, immigration, and foreign affairs. It was known ad the Exclusive List.
  Next, there was a list of matters on which both the Federal Parliament and the Regional Legislature could make laws. If a Region made a law on one of these subjects which clashed with a Federal law, the Federal one prevailed and the Regional one did not take effect. This included universities, prisons, labour, drugs and poisons, and public order, and was known as the Concurrent List.
Lastly, any matters which were not included in either the Exclusive or the Concurrent list were the sole concern of the Regions. Only the Regional Legislatures could make laws about then, and only the Regional Executive Councils might control them. They included schools hospitals, forestry, local government (which includes native authorities), agriculture, and native or customary courts.
 When Nigeria was first called a Federation the term meant that it had a Federal Government covering the whole country, and regional government covering their own Regions, each type of Government having it own responsibility and neither being able to interfere with the other.

THE FEDERAL TERRITORY OF LAGOS
There was, however, one part of Nigeria which did not lie within any Region, namely Lagos and the area around it. This was controlled entirely by the Federal Government, and Parliament could make laws on any subject applying to it.


NIGERIA AS A REPUBLIC

Before we can understand what a Republic is, we must go back 200 years in history, to a time when nearly all the countries in Europe were ruled by Kings. A King is a ruler who owes his authority to hereditary ; that is, when one king dies, he is succeeded by his son, or the next most closely related member of the royal family if he has no son. There are carefully defined rules to ensure that there is no doubt about who succeeds. The king is never chosen by the people.
But about 150 years ago the people of Europe began to feel that it was wrong for the whole power of government to be in the hands of a particular person just because he was the royal blood. In the United Kingdom, although the King retained his position, the real power gradually passed to the King's Ministers, who were Members of Parliament belonging to the party that had won a majority in the election. The King had to act, in all matters, on the advice of the ministers, and no longer played any personal part in governing. Today, the Queen is still Head of State but is a Constitutional Head of State : the Government is conducted in her name, but she herself takes no decisions. She reigns, but does not rule.
  Other countries decided to drive out their Kings and replace them with Presidents, who were Head of State chosen by the people for a fixed period of office, usually five years. A country with this kind of Head of State is called a Republic, whereas a country with King or Queen is called a Monarchy. The president of a republic may be the real ruler of the country (as in America and Senegal), or he may be in the same position as the Queen in the United Kingdom, that is he does everything on the advice of Ministers who are members of the legislature (as in India).
 When Nigeria became independent in 1960, it remained a monarchy. The Queen of the United Kingdom was also the Queen of Nigeria. But as she lived in London (which is 3000 miles away from Lagos), she had a representative in Nigeria, known as a Governor-General. Neither the Queen nor the Governor-General on her behalf actually ruled Nigeria; the Government was carried on in her name by Nigerian ministers, just as the Government in the United Kingdom is carried on in her name by British Ministers.
However, in 1963, the leaders of Nigeria decided that, even though the queen did not exercise any power in Nigeria, it was wrong that Nigeria's Head of State should be a non-Nigerian living in 3000 miles away. It was agreed that Nigeria should have a president, chosen by the people to hold office for five years. His position was to be virtually the same as that of the Governor-General, that is he should be constitutional Head of State; he himself would not rule, but the Government would be carried on by the ministers in his name.
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Friday, 1 June 2018

Summary Of A Woman In Her Prime (chapter 1)


A woman in her prime is a novel written in Ghana by Asare Konadu all the characters in the novel are popular names in Ghana.
Summary of A Woman In Her Prime (Chapter 1)
This chapter is particularly about the "day of sacrifice" for the great god Tano.
Pokuwaa in her daily routine went to the river to fetch water, she was particularly excited because it was the day of sacrifice for the great god Tano so she woke up very early in the morning to do her daily house chores and prepares for bathing. As she scooped the water over her body, the water was a bit chilly "she should have heated it" she thought but nevertheless it saves her more time because on this day Tano's house was always filled up with people who also render their sacrifice.
 People would bring yams, sheep, goat, eggs, cowries. What a person had to sacrifice depended on their requirement, in some cases people were asked to bring cows.
 How lucky is Pokuwaa she was asked to bring a black hen and eggs though it was difficult for her to get the black hen. In this chapter 1 it was all about the black hen, her sacrifice, Pokuwaa and the fetish child.
 Pokuwaa had traveled over six miles to buy the black hen which cost her two hundred cowries, she put a single bed for identification and tied it up only for her to return from the river and discovered it no longer there, so she had to go in search of it because she can't risk missing this sacrifice known as fofie which came once in every six week. It is believe on this day that gods and goddess moved among men to feast and grant people's request. In the cause of her search for the black hen, Pokuwaa came upon some children playing in a lane.
'Children', she pleaded, have you seen a black hen here?' one of them started running immediately she asked the question — 'why' she called 'come back! I want you to help me find my black black hen'. One of the children volunteered an explanation "he is running because he has been throwing stones at a black hen ". 'where? Come with me and show me' Pokuwaa addressing the little boy.
He looked younger than his seven years and had a bushy hair with cowries and shells tied in it. She looked at the boy and showed sympathy for him, she knew such children should not be harshly treated, let alone beaten for if they were beaten the fetish would take them away. Soon the boy took her to a mango tree and said "This was where I first saw the hen".
Pokuwaa was getting impatient she looked at the rising sun in the crimson sky and knew that if she was to get to Tano's home in time, she would have to hurry.
' oh God, she groaned who could have set the hen free? Who?.
They were almost at the bush outside the village, there was nothing to do but to enter it and search it. "what a world, when you find the hoe, you can't find the stick, and when you find the stick you can't find the hoe' she cried out oh, Adwoa Pokuwaa! Am in a tight lane'. They were getting into denser bush when her eyes fell on a shiny black back, through a range of thorny stem, she injured her hand when she thrust through the thorn without caution. She was fascinated by the redness of her blood and she was certainly young enough to have a child — she thought.
Why was the hen so still? Was it dead? she broke off a branch and began to push the thorns aside to make an opening before she knew it the fetish child had ran the other side towards the black hen in the bush beyond. Pokuwaa had noticed that a black snake had been trying to swallow the hen.
She wasn't afraid of snakes because she had earlier killed one at her early age. Soon she was pinning it down with a sharp end of the branch in other to pull out the leg of the hen, which had been swallowed up to the thigh, while the hen flapped and cackled hysterically. Pokuwaa was aware of a sense if triumph. If the black snake was a bad spirit, or a man turned into a snake, it had been conquered.
 The first round of her battle was over. A prayer was in her lips as she ran the whole way home :
'Okatakyi Brempong,
Leader of men, linguist of all gods.
You know the deep and see what comes.
The rest of the fight is in your hand.
Okatakyi, my praises of you will never end.'
When she arrived breathless in her compound, Kwadwo Fordwuo was there waiting 'come' she panted, ' I will tell you everything on our way', she fetch her eggs and they head to the great god Tano house for the sacrifice.

Chapter 2 to be continued at another post. 
Note : This is only a summary of the entire chapter 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Wednesday, 23 May 2018

Cheque [ Economics ]

A Cheque is an instruction in writing made upon a bank to pay a given sum of money to a named person or bearer, at a specific date.
A Cheque is an instruction in writing made upon a bank to pay a given sum of money to a named person or bearer, at a specific date.
FEATURES OF A CHEQUE
1. The name and the branch of the bank. 
2. The date the cheque will be presented for payment. 
3. The account number of the drawer. 
4. The serial number for reference purposes. 
5. The name of the payee who may be the drawer. 
6. The signature of the drawer. 
7. The amount to be paid to the payee. 
8. The amount in words and in figure. 
9. The stamp duty. 

Functions of A Cheque
 It makes payment convenient 
• It can be stopped 
• It safe means of remitting money
• It removes risks of carrying physical cash 
• Cheque Act as receipt
• It makes business transactions possible within a short time. 

Parties To A Cheque

The drawer : This is the owner of the account who writes the cheque to his creator. 
The drawee: This is the bank where the cheque will be presented and cashed. 
Payee : This is the person who presents the cheque in the bank for payment and whom the cheque is made payable. 
TYPES OF CHEQUE
Bearer Cheque : This is a cheque that is made payable to whoever that present it and that is the meaning of the word 'bearer'
Order cheque : This is a cheque made payable to a person named on it or his order. 
Open Cheque : It is a cheque without transverse line drawn across its face
Crossed Cheque : It is the opposite of an open cheque because, it has two transverse lines drawn across other face in between the two lines, it may or may not be written '&co' or 'Not Negotiable'
Ways Of Crossing A Cheque
• General Crossing : A cheque is said to be "generally crossed" when two transverse lines are drawn on it face with the the word "&Co" "Not Negotiable" etc
• Special Crossing : A cheque with ' special crossing' has two transverse lines on its face with the name of a particular bank written in between the two lines. 
EFFECT OF CROSSING A CHEQUE
1. A crossed cheque must be paid into a bank current account. 
2. It cannot be cashed at the counter, unless the drawer writes "please pay cash" in between the two transverse line. 
3. It restricts a cheque to a particular bank in a town. 
4. It prevents it from being cashed if it stolen. 
5. It must last for at least four working days before it matures when it is paid into a current account. 
Forms Of Cheque 
1. Post-Dated : This is a cheque with future date or dated head of time. 
2. Stale : It is the opposite of a post-dated cheque and it has past date or an expired cheque 
3. Certified : It is cheque that is drawn or ratifies by bank on behalf of customer. 
4. Dishonoured Cheque : This is a cheque a bank refuses to pay cash on presentation. 
There are reasons for Dishonoured Cheque;
• Insufficient fund
• The death of the drawer
• irregular signature 
• Non-existing 
• Bankruptcy 
• Frozen account 
• A stale cheque 
• When there's alternation
• A post-dated cheque
• When payment is stopped 
• If the account is closed
• If there Re difference between the amount written in words and in figures. 

Bounced Cheque


It is another name for dishonoured cheque and when it is referred to a cheque, it means a cheque returned by a bank as worthless which is very derogatory. A bounced cheque is also known as a dud cheque. 
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Tuesday, 22 May 2018

Delegated Authority

Okolo and idris (2002) defined " Delegated Authority as a situation when an individual or institution that is supposed to exercise a particular authority decides to transfer such authority to other bodies or individuals so that they can carry them out on their behalf."
  Delegation means a situation where part of responsibility is given to someone in a lower position in an organization. Those in a position could see authority as official power exercise. Delegated authority is very important in the political system in the sense that it aids good governance in a modem state.
Delegated authority could also be defined as administrative process through which a higher superior authority empowers a lower authority to act in some matters on it behalf. For example local government authorities are given the power to draw up bye laws for the good governance of the council. Another good example of designation is delegated legislation is a kind of law made not by the regular legislative body but an extra-legislative machinery. Parliament, because of unavoidable circumstances, delegates some of it power to ministers, public corporation and so on to make law. It also means the rules or regulations made by a person, body or group of persons in accordance with the legislative power given by Parliament to him or as the case may be. We shall now turn to the reasons for delegated authority.
Reasons For Delegated Authority
The major reasons why delegated authority are important in a modem states are :
1. Stability: Delegation of authority promotes organizational stability because it is the act by which a person (superior) processing authority, transfers part of that authority to subordinate.

2. Decentralization : Delegated authority promotes administrative decentralization and participatory behavior. This enhances socio-political development in the society.

3. Expert: Delegated authority allows for the use of expert knowledge in a modem state. The civil servants who help the minister to draft statutory instruments before parliament are talented expert whose knowledge in the particular field can only be put to maximum use by way of delegated authority.

4. Save time : Because if limited time coupled with volume of work required in a country, there is hardly time for parliament to go into details. It therefore becomes necessary that parliament delegates some of its power in order to save time. This however is delegated legislation.

5. Technicality: Some matters are technical that they are better left to ministries or department if the rules dealing with them are to be soundly and speedily made.

6. Emergency: Delegated authority makes provision foro quick action in an emergency situation such as war, economic crisis, strikes and so on, if used properly delegated authority helps the government to overcome emergencies.

7. Thoroughness: The use of delegated authority allows rules and bye-laws to be carefully considered so that mistakes can be avoided.

Forms of Delegated Authority 

The forms of delegated authority can be deduced from the organisation or arrangement of the branches of government, that is legislature, executive and the judiciary. Forms of delegated authority, in the legislative point are:
• Bye-law: These are laws made by local government public corporations ministries etc. They are empowered by Act of Parliament. The bye-law of one authority has no effect in area of another local authority. 
• Provisional orders: These enable local authorities or ministries to carry out certain undertaking that wilt be later confirmed by the Parliament. 
• Judicial Aspect : Judicial delegation of authority happens in the for of the use of tribunals. Tribunal in this sense is a special court made to perform the duties of a regular court. To them, whether it is called administrative tribunal, special military tribunal and so on, it is a delegation of judicial authority.
• Orders in Council : The sovereign (King, Queen or President) has delegated authority under his prerogative to make certain proclaimation having the backing of the law. In Britain the PrivyCouncil; the highest court of Appeal for the United Kingdom mostly ratifies these orders.
• Statutory Instrument : This is a situation where the Act of Parliament empowers ministries or public corporation to issue order or rules on certain matter. It could also be known as ministerial order.
  Executive aspect : The executive is an arm of government that is very important and traditionally the most pervasive purveyor of influence. It initiates proposals and determines the priorities of the state. This involves a lot of time and vigor. To have a smooth running of the state, chief executive gives part of the responsibilities to an individual or group of individuals in the form of delegated authorities.
Nigeria for example operates presidential system, an arrangement in which the head of State is also the head of government. That the whole country is the President's constituency means that the work of the president is enormous and demanding. He therefore appoints ministers who take charge of different ministries and are accountable to him. These ministers exercise delighted authority from the president.

CONTROL OF DELEGATED AUTHORITY
Delegated authority can be misused and in other to minimize such, various methods have been advanced to ensure control.
1. Public Outcry : Public outcry serves as serious control of the activities of the bodies with power of delegated legislation. If a proposed legislation is against public interest, there will be a general outcry that will lead to the withdrawal. Also am aggrieved person can always repot to the public complain commission which may take measures likely to redress such grievances and compel the legislation to be withdrawn or amended.
2. Financial Control : The government exercise financial control delegated bodies. Delegates authorities cannot spend money anyhow. The government sends government auditors to check their accounts from time to times to prevent misuse of public fund.
3. The Principle of Ministerial Responsibility : The Parliament can as a matter of right demand that Minister who misuses his delegated power must account for his action.
4. Press Criticism : The press also known as the fourth estate of the realm, through  their criticism serves as control to delegated authority and legislation. The press can call for amendments or repeal of any legislation objected to, and the bodies with powers of delegated legislation are always conscious of this.
5. Statutory Instrument : This is a committee set up by the parliament purposely to examine and scrutinize all statutory instruments laid on the floor of the house. It mandated to draw the attention of Parliament to any instrument, which may involve an additional expenditure on the public revenue, the committee later on report back to the general house for the modification of such statutory instruments and subsequently approves them yo become law or revokes them as the case maybe.
6. Judicial Control : The law courts exercise control over orders, rules, and regulations by ensuring that they are made in line with the statute that authorized their existence.

Merits of Delegated Authority
• Flexibility : Delegated laws can easily be revoked, unlike laws made in the parliament that are rigid and they take years to repeal when defective.
• Thoroughness and Precision : The need for thoroughness and precision is also responsible for the use of delegated legislation. On the other hand, the application of delegated legislation allows rules, bye-laws and regulations to be carefully considered arid worked out properly and dearly by the executive bodies.
• Emergency situation : The needs to meet urgent situations during emergencies is equally responsible for the use of delegated legislation.
Thus, the minister or his representative is given the power to act in the interest of the nation during emergencies, without necessarily going through the normal parliamentary procedure  before the situation gets out of hand.
•  Saving of Time : In delegated authority power are conferred on certain bodies, organisations and individuals to make certain minor laws while the parliament concentrates on laws in broader terms.

Demerits 
• Inadequate Publicity : Very many laws made through delegated legislation are not adequately publicized to the extend that many citizens are unaware of the existence of such laws.
• It encourages Dictatorship : An over ambitious executive can become dictatorial as a result of the powers vested on him by delegated legislation during emergency period.

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Thursday, 17 May 2018

Food Supply

Providing food for an ever increasing human population is one of the foremost concerns today. To do this, we have to study the factors that affect our food supply. These factors are

• food production,
• food preservation and storage,
• food wastage.

Food Production
Food for humans comes from both crops and livestock. Growing crops is a more efficient way of producing food than rearing livestock.
     
Food production needs arable land that is land suitable for agriculture. It is increased by improving agricultural yields.
Land for Cultivation 
Since the later part of the nineteenth century, land under agriculture has been decreasing. This was due to urbanization and industrialization. More and more land was taken away from cultivation and used for putting up factories, offices, houses, roads and highways. To increase food production, we have to;

1. Keep the land that is presently under cultivation, and not take it away for other purposes;
2. Maintain soil fertility of the land under cultivation by manuring, adding chemical fertilizer, practicing crop rotation and preventing soil erosion;
3. Convert land that is not fit for crop cultivation into fertile land.

Non-productive desert land can be converted to fertile fields by irrigation. This has been done successfully in certain regions of south-western USA. However, it is not easy to irrigate desert land as the soil water dries up fast under desert conditions. This may eventually make the upper layers of soil salty. Many desert soils are usually shallow, with an underlying layer of rickm
 Much of the world's land is covered with hills and mountains. Some of these slopes can be used for cultivation. Terracing and cover crop planting have to be done to prevent soil erosion on slopes.
    Some land for crop cultivation can be obtained by clearing tropical jungles and forests. Such land has a very poor humus content, therefore it has to be managed carefully to improve and maintain it fertility.

Improving Agricultural Yields
Crop yields and livestock productivity have been greatly increased by the following methods:

  1. Soil fertility and fertilizers : Maintaining the fertility of the land ensures a high level of crop production. It is archived mainly through the use of organic manure, artificial fertilizers and rotation of crops. 
  2. Pesticides and Protective Chemicals : Pests, parasites and diseases cause poor agricultural yields in the topics. By using pesticides, vaccines and other protective chemicals, farmers have greatly improved their crop yields and livestock productivity. 
  3. Improved crop and livestock breads : In the 1960s, plant readers or geneticists began the 'green revolution'. Through selective breeding they developed a new strains of crop plants that have high yields. For example, the 'IR-8' and 'IR-5' dwarf rice strains produce twice as much rice grains per plant as the normal strains.                           High yield crop strains have improved food production in many developing countries. However, their cultivation requires machinery and large amount of energy, fertilizer and pesticide — materials that are short in supply in the topics and subtropics. Research stations too have to be set up to teach farmers how to cultivate the new crop strains. In spite of these problems, increasing the world's food supply depends largely on producing new strains of plants that;                                        
Produce a high yield 
Have a high nutritive content 
Are resistant to pest and diseases, and 
Will grow successfully in area where they could not grow before. 
In the future, generic engineering techniques may make it possible to have crop strains that have characteristics like ability :
• To fix atmospheric nitrogen or
• To produce chemicals that can prevent them from succumbing to diseases. 
   In temperate countries, selective breeding has produced many livestock breed that are highly productive. 
4. Mechanization : To obtain high yields in farming, mechanization is important. The extent of mechanization depends on the size of the farm. 

Preserving and Storing Food

Most foods spoil if they are not stored properly. Spoilage is due to
• loss of water
• chemical changes as a result of oxidation and enzymes action
• growth of spoilage micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi which cause decomposition. 
  In the past, people preserved food by storing it in cool places and by drying, smoking, salting, curing, fermenting and pickling. Today we still preserve food by these methods as well as by canning, freezing, adding chemicals and irradiation. All food preservation methods try to prevent the enzymes in food from working and slow or stop the growth of spoilage micro-organisms.

Drying
Cereal are preserved by drying. In many parts of the tropics, this is still done by spreading the grains on mats under the sun and starring the grains from time to time. Modern methods use hot air, direct heat and vacuum to dry food.
Meat, fish, eggs, milk, legumes, vegetables and fruits are preserved by drying.
  Drying concentrates the nutrients in food and reduces it water content. This stops the enzymes in dried foods from working and prevents most spoilage micro-organisms from growing on them. Drying also reduces the size and mass off the foods, making them easier to package, transport and store.
      Dried foods like cereals must be stored in dry, low humidity places which are fumigated and sealed from pests. Dried eggs, meats, milk and vegetables are packed in aluminum, tin or plastic containers. Drying agents are also included with certain foods when they are packed.

Low-temperature Preseevation
At low temperatures, all life's processes slow down. Thus, the respiratory rate of fresh fruits, vegetables and seeds slows down, enabling them to last longer; the growth of spoilage micro-organisms also slow down. There are two main low temperature preservation methods:
•refrigeration
•freezing.

Pasteurization 
Micro-organisms cause milk to become sour very quickly, especially in the tropics. To prevent this, Milk is pasteurized by heating to 72°C for 15 seconds and cooling rapidly. This destroys most of the microorganisms, thereby allowing it to 'keep' for a longer time.

Fermentation 
In fermentation, certain substances in food undergo chemical changes which affect it flavor, odor and texture. Fermentation is carried out by microorganisms under special conditions. The process is often combined with salting. Fruits and vegetables are preserved by this process.
On addition, food substance that contains poisonous ingredients are first subjected to fermentation so as to remove the poisonous substance before preservation. For example, cassava is a staple food in West Africa where it is produced in large quantities. Cassava contains a poisonous substance called Cyanide. This dangerous substance is removed by fermentation for three or four days. Drying and smoking methods are then applied for preservation of the cassava.
Fermentation has alcohol, carbon dioxide and small energy as by-product. In palm wine, fermentation produces alcohol which helps to preserve palm wine from bacterial infection.
  Furthermore, tobacco and tea leave are preserved by fermentation through curring.

Preventing Wastage of Food
An important method of increasing the world's food supplies is to cut down wastage at all stages of food production and storage.

• Manure and Fertilizer : Farmyard manure is wasted instead of being used to fertilize soil and improve it crumb structures. Many farmers also do not know how to apply artificial fertilizer in the correct amount and by the appropriate methods. This waste alot of expensive fertilizers, lower crop yields and upset the ecosystem.
• Harvesting : In the tropics, primitive harvesting and winnowing methods cause considerable crop losses in the field. Careless harvesting of root crops and vegetables causes damage. Damaged crops do not store well and so are wasted.
• Storage : Enormous amount of food are wasted during storage and transport. In the case of cereals, improper drying of grains and storage pest such as rats and weevils cause a lot wastage.

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Tuesday, 15 May 2018

Forest Management

Forest management is the act in which activities in forest are being controlled in an orderly manner. 

Meaning and Importance of Forest
A forest generally refers to any area of land that is covered with trees along with the undergrowth of shrub between the trees.
  1. Forest provides timber for export. 
  2. It provides wood for used planks, furniture, fuel, paper, etc. 
  3. It is a source of medicinal herbs. 
  4. Provides wild fruits and seeds for consumption. 
  5. Forest harbour wild animals which are useful to man as meat. 
  6. Forest cover helps to prevent erosion and serves as wind break. 
Forest has effect on local climatic conditions and helps to check desert encroachment. 
  1. It increases soil fertility through the decomposition of leaves of plants and helps to enhance the growth and activities of soil microbes. 
  2. Source of industrial materials such as dye, resin. 
  3. Provides leaves for packaging e.g I plan its. 
  4. Serves as tourist attraction. 
  5. Serves as source of revenue and employment to people who are involved in lumbering activities.

Some Important Trees and Animals found in Forest


TREES ANIMALS
1. Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) 1. Elephant (Loxodonta agricana)
2. Iroko (Chlorophora excelsa) 2. Green Monkey (Phacopithecus aethiopicus)
3. African Walnut (Lovoa klaineana) 3. Grass cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus)
4. Obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon) 4. Antelope (Neotragus spp)
5. Opepe (Sarocephalus diderrichii) 5. Bush fowl (Gallus spp)
6. Pulp wood (Gmelina arborea) 6. Mahogany (Crycetomys gambianus)

Forest Management Practices 
1.) Forest regulations :
These are laws made by government aimed at preserving or conserving forest trees and other forest resources. Such laws helps to regulate the felling of trees for timber (lumbering),  killing of animals in forest reserve etc. 
In Nigeria, some of the forest regulations are :

  • Prohibition of individuals or group of persons from entering Forest reserve to fell trees, hunt, make private farms etc, without permission granted by the appropriate authority;
  • Prohibition of persons from setting fore on forest reserve and bush in general. 
2.) Regeneration
         This is the practice of replacing cut trees in the forest. There are two types of regeneration — natural and artificial regeneration. In natural regeneration, the stumps of cut trees are allowed to regrow to become new trees. Also seeds that are naturally dispersed germinate and grow into new forest trees. This is a cheap way of regenerating forest as it does not involve any cost on the part of the farmer. 
     In artificial regeneration, seeds or seedlings of forest trees are planted to replace cut trees in the forest. This method is expensive in terms of cost and time. 
3. Afforestation
      This involves the planting of trees in an area where there has been no forest previously. It is usually an attempt to artificially establish forest cover in areas where there are no natural forests. This helps to prevent desert encroachment, protect the soil against erosion and serves as wind break. Atmospheric pollution is also reduced while the environment can be beautified through afforestation. Afforestation also brings about all the other benefits that are derived forest 
4. Deforestation
This is the continuous removal of forest stands (trees) without replacing them deforestation could be brought about by :
  • Man's farming activities 
  • Bush fire
  • Over grazing 
  • Road construction 
  • Industrialization 
  • Mining and quarrying 
  • Timber exploitation and fuel wood cutting 
  • Natural disasters 
Deforestation has the following effects on the environment :
  1. Encourages/increases soil erosion
  2. Reduces water percolation
  3. Results in loss of soil nutrients 
  4. Reduces humus content of soil
  5. Reduces the amount of rainfall in the area
  6. Hinders activities of soil micro-organisms
  7. Reduces wild life population in the area
  8. May lead to desertification 
5. Taungya system
This is the growing of both forestry and agricultural crops on the same piece of land at a time. Or the integration of annual cropping with early stages of forest establishment. The growing of agricultural crops continues on the land until the Forest crop closes canopy. 
There are certain conditions that favour, the practice of taungya system, these are ;
  1. Land hunger
  2. Over population 
  3. Government policy 
  4. Unemployment or underemployment 
  5. Low standard of living 
  6. Availability of incentive for additional farming 
  7. The need to remove unwanted trees from the forest. 
Taungya stems allows for the utilization of fertile Forest land for farming by farmers while it assist the foresters in reducing the cost of establishing forest. Farmers have access to free land while more land is brought under forest cover. 
6. Management problems in forestry
Forest management the act of taking care of forest so as to preserve the echo system
  • Bush fire will kills both plant and animal species in the forest. 
  • Incidence of pest and diseases. 
  • Long period of maturity of timber. 
  • Unlined timber exploiters. 
  • Indiscriminate deforestation by farmers and fuel wood users or dealers. 
  • Inadequate forest supervision by Forest personnel. This could also be due to inadequate forestry personnel. 
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