Receive More Updates

SMS: Send JOIN LECTPORTAL To 08064851069 TO JOIN OUR WHATSAPP GROUP - EMAIL: customercare.lectportal@gmail.com

lectportal

Home Home » Archives for 2018-03-25

Saturday, 31 March 2018

Popular Participation

lectportal popular participation

Popular participation is the involvement of all citizens in the decision-making process of a country since they are potentially affected by or interested in a decision. It is a political principle and practice which recognizes the right of the citizens to participate in the decision-making process; or put appropriately, political process. The term 'popular participation' has been used interchangeably with the concept or practice of stakeholder engagement or public participation.
 Public participation implies that public contribution will influence the decisions affecting their lives. Popular participation may be regarded as a method of empowerment, which is vital component of democratic governance.
     Democracy follows directly from the ideal of political equality interpreted in terms as equal intrinsic worth of individuals. Political equality is a central ideal in all conceptions of democracy. This brings about inclusiveness of the citizenry and equal opportunity to influence political agenda and decision-making. The democratic system can only be sustained and nurtured by collective intelligence and inclusiveness, shaped by the participation of the whole community or society.
   The idea of popular participation of the citizens in politics can be said to be part of  "people centred" or 'human centric' principles or advanced as part of a "people first" paradigm shift. The role of public participation in political, economic and human development in general was enshrined in the 1990 African charter for  Popular Participation in Development and Transformation in all democratic systems. Since then, public participation has become a central principle of public policy making, as all levels of government strive to build citizens and stakeholders into their policy-making processes. This is viewed as a toll intended to measure attainable objectives, evaluate government and identify lessons for future pratices. Apart from participating in voting, public opinion and performing their civic rights, citizens now involve in budgeting and environmental planning and governance.
Read more

Thursday, 29 March 2018

Economies Scale or Scale Of Production

By economies scale, we mean the growth of a firm or an industry resulting from expansion of the scale of productive capacity which leads to increase in output and decrease in its cost of production per unit of output. There are two types of economies scale and they are;
1. Internal economies and internal dis-economies.
2. External economies and external dis-economies.

Economies Scale or Scale Of Production lectportal


INTERNAL ECONOMIES AND INTERNAL DIS-ECONOMIES

Internal economies, also known as the economies of large scale production are the advantages a firm derives from the expansion of its scale of production as result of its own single efforts. In this case, as the size of the firm increases, there will be greater efficiency resulting in fall in the cost of per unit output.
On the other hand when the firm expansion leads to less efficiency and increase in the cost of per unit output as a result of internal difficulties or organizational constraints, the firm is suffering from what is known as internal dis-economies.

CLASSIFICATION OF AND ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL ECONOMIES OF LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION OR ADVANTAGES A LARGE FIRM HAS OVER SMALL FIRM

Technological or Technical Economies: A large firms can afford to apply the use of advanced machines, etc.
Marketing Economies: A large firm can afford to buy its raw materials in bulk which lowers the price and gets large discount, sells in bulk and saves packing and transport cost, etc.
Research Economies: A large firm as a result of the size and financial position, can afford to have its own research laboratory and employ competent researchers to man it.
Financial Economies: A large scale business unit can easily obtain loans from banks, issue shares and debentures to members of the public in order to raise more capital than a small scale business unit.
Managerial Economies: A large business unit employs managerial experts in different fields more than a small business unit.
Welfare Economies: A large firm provides welfare facilities to its workers more than a small firm.
Training Economies: A large firm is in a better position of having its own training institute to its workers more than a small firm.
Risk-Bearing Economies: A large firm is in a better position of warding off and bearing business risks than a small firm.

DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL ECONOMIES OF LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION OR ADVANTAGES OF SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION OR ADVANTAGES OF SMALL SCALE FIRM OVER LARGE SCALE FIRM

  1. The relationship between employers and employees of a large firm is more impersonal than a small scale firm.
  2. It is easier for a small scale firm to adjust to business changes than large scale firm.
  3. A large firm suffers from bureaucracy and red-tapism which slows down its production processes than small scale firm.
  4. There are more delays in policy and decision making in a large firm than in a small scale firm.
  5. It requires more capital to establish, run and finance a large scale firm than a small scale firm.
  6. A large scale firm has increased business risks more than a small scale firm.

LIMITATION OR FACTORS THAT ENCOURAGE OR DISCOURAGE LARGE SCALE PRODUCTION

  1. The size of the market or the extent of the firm's goods and services are demanded.
  2. Availability of raw materials.
  3. The amount of capital at the reach of firm.
  4. Availability or non-availability of factors of production.
  5. Efficiency or non-efficiency of factors of production.
  6. The application or non-application of division of labour.
  7. The technological development of the firm.
  8. The organizational ability of the managers of the firm.
  9. The extent of development of the firm's transport and communication.
  10. The nature of the firm's production.

EXTERNAL ECONOMIES AND EXTERNAL DISECONOMIES

        External economies are the advantages a firm derives from increase in its output and decreases in costs due to helps the firm received from other firms especially in the use of their products. External dis-economies on the hand are the increased costs a firm will experience as a result of increasing it output resulting from external effects.
Read more

Wednesday, 28 March 2018

Eelspace [sponsored post]

Eel space is a Nigerian online offline space and workshop booking agency located at 33 Ikpa road Uyo Akwa ibom state in Nigeria.
EELSPACE was launched on 18th January, 2018 to serve as a beacon of hope to Freelance Entrepreneurs in Nigeria as they no longer need to spend excessively on Electricity and Rent Bills. The strategy was formed and implemented so as to create the possibility of acquiring an office space, workspace or workshop for few hours, days, weeks, months and not necessarily renting an office space or workshop for one year to run own business. 
The idea behind eelspace office space, workspace, workshop and electricity sharing system was originally intended to help office space, workspace, workshop and business owners in Nigeria reduce the amount of money they spend on electricity and rent bills by sensitizing them on the effect of sharing their office space, workspace, workshop and business space with freelance entrepreneurs in Nigeria who do not have their own workstation.

EELSPACE is an electricity and space sharing community. The space includes but not limited to office space, workspace, workshop, and business space. By sharing one’s office space and workshop with 3 freelance entrepreneurs per day with each of them paying N1,000 for say 4 - 6hours per day, a total of N3,000 will be made which serves as an extra income which can be used to fuel the generator which provides electricity for the office or workshop and over time will be used to facilitate payment of electricity and rent bills.
Before launching eelspace, a research was carried out on what utilities mostly affect the income growth of most business centers in Nigeria and why. The research showed that electricity and rent bills greatly influence the profitability and income growth of every business in Nigeria due to lack of constant electricity and cheap office spaces or workshops. 85% of Nigerians lack access to constant electricity supply and this includes office space, workshops and workspace owners.
With eelspace, freelance entrepreneurs can successfully make good income while freelancing as it is now easy to find and book a cheap office space, workspace and workshop with access to constant power supply. Freelance Inventors, skillful tailors and seamstress, skillful carpenters etc that do not have own workshop with useful equipment can get to book workshops in their field of expertise which will allow them access to an avalanche of equipment, machineries and tools for which the freelance entrepreneur will use and finish a clients job without worries of renting equipment or machineries just by booking to use an allied workshop available in our website www.eelspace.com Business owners who share their office space, workspace and workshops with freelance entrepreneurs using our platform get to have their business advertised freely on the landing page of our website as well as on our social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Google +, WhatSapp) which will tell more people about the services they offer.


WHAT YOU NEED TO GET STARTED

  1. Sing up online and create your eel-station:
    Give us some description of the workspace you want to share, your location [address]; the duration of availability [How long the working space will be available for use]; your cost per day and a few more details.
  2. And get your daily Reward :
    We’re committed to ensure that Entrepreneurs, Students, Tech persons, Hobbyist, tech-preneurs, freelancers that need a working space and reading space gets to easily locate your eel-station and thus help you cut the cost of sole generation of electricity with a few extra incomes.
  3. Link to the website is : https://eelspace.com
Read more

Expelled Poem By Jared Angira

   Expelled is a poem of lamentation. It explained the pathetic condition of someone who does not seem to be favored in anyway. The poet persona is rejected by everybody, his misfortune is as a result of colonialist who come to his community changes everything to the detriment of the inhabitants.

What You Need To Know About The Poem Expelled By Jared Angira

  • In the first stanza of the poem, the poet pesona explains the situation before the colonialist came to his community, all economic activities flourished until one day when the colonialist came by boat to his community looking elegant and friendly, promising heaven on earth. As soon as they have taken over the community as one of their colonies, economic activities begins to dwindle because of the manner of their trade which is not beneficial to the natives.
  • In the second stanza the poet persona explains the effect of colonialist intrusion into his community. All economic policies that are formulated by the colonialist are alien and detrimental to the natives.
  • In the third stanza, the poet pathetic condition has intensified. His economic has so increased that he can not afford a locket to keep record of those whom he borrowed money from.
  • In the fourth stanza, the poet persona paints a graphic and vivid picture of his psychological and physical states. He weeps profusely because of his financial straits. He used hyperbole to describe how he weeps.
the poem titled Expelled by Jared Angira

       Poetic Devices Used In The Poem Expelled

Alliteration,Onomatopoeia, Symbolism, Hyperbole, Repetition and Allusion.

1) HYPERBOLE : 
(i)  My tears flowed to flooded streams
(ii)  From my veins, my heart, my whole
(iii) And sources the rivulet from my human lake.

2) ALLUSION :
(i) When Sodom burnt and Gomorrah fell.

3) SYMBOLISM :
(i) "Rusty" represents poverty and lack
(ii) "Dark Circus" represent the society.

4) ONOMATOPOEIA :
(i) Burst  the cowshed.....
(ii) The auctioneer will gong   his harmer
(iii) The debtors records blared .

STRUCTURE OF THE POEM EXPELLED

The poem expelled has 6 (six) stanzas

THEME

Intrusion of colonist in African terrain : The colonist came to Africa to change Africans' ways of thinking, economic activities, these had adverse effect on Africans till date.
sorrow
despair
neglect
oppression
poverty etc
Read more
Lectportal