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Monday, 18 June 2018

Values (Civic Education)

A value is a belief, a mission, or a philosophy that is meaningful. They are an integral part of every society which influences the behavior and culture of a people or community. Values are important as they are related to the norms of a society, and so they guide the conducts of individuals, groups, or the entire community.
  Values lay the foundation of law, customs and traditions and enable members of a community to solve common human problems for survival.
The values of a society permit social expectations and collective understanding of what is good, beautiful and constructive. We can also say that values dictate the belief system of people and reflect in their ways of life (culture) thereby, shoeing their identity.
Values also reflect a person's sense of judgement whether right it wrong and help him or her to choose how to behave in every situation. Whether we are consciously aware of then or not, every individual has a core set of personal values and these values motivate us to move our lives in certain directions. Those who value their individuality take responsibility, are self-reliant and act with self respect. Those who value truthfulness cannot tell a lie. Those who value family or friendship sacrifice their personal interests for the good of others, etc. We express our values in our relations with other people when we are loyal, reliable, honest, generous, trusting, trustworthy, feel a sense if responsibility for family, friends, co-workers, our organization, community or country, etc.
   Also, our values can be the belief in hard work and punctuality, self-reliance, concern for others, cooperation, integration, team work, selflessness, tolerance, respect for others, justice, etc. These personal valued influence a person's attitude and behavior; and determines what one wants and in what order he or she wants them.
      Personal values, that groups of people find important in their day-to-day lives, lay the foundation of societal values. Personal values in this way exist in relation to cultural or societal values.
Valued are also manifested at the level of society. Different cultures makes up the different societies and each culture has values that are largely shared by their members. The values of a society are related to the norms of that society. They identify what should be judged as good or evil.
A value is a belief, a mission, or a philosophy that is meaningful. They are an integral part of every society which influences the behavior and culture of a people or community. Values are important as they are related to the norms of a society, and so they guide the conducts of individuals, groups, or the entire community.

Cultural values determine and regulate how people interact and what they do with the resources around them. These values give the people an identity as a group and stand as their moral conducts and responsibilities. Group members who express serious conflict with the group's norms are encouraged to conform or stigmatised for non-conformity.
   Values are obtained in many different ways. The most important place for building values is the family. The family is responsible for teaching children what is right and wrong before they come across other influences. As a child starts schooling, the school helps to shape the values of children. The religion a child is introduced to also plays an important role of teaching the right and wrong behaviors.

TYPES OF VALUES

There are different types of values. They include honesty, selflessness, cooperation, self-reliance, integrity, contentment, discipline, courage, right attitude to work, etc. All of these except justice and selflessness have been discussed in the Junior Secondary Books 1-3.
(A) Justice
Justice refers to fairness in the wat people are treated. It is a value which every individual, group or organization must posses. Justice is a concept of moral rightness based on reasoning, law, natural law, religion or equity. It id the quality of being just, and confirming to the principles of righteousness in all things. When someone is said to be just, he/she treats people equally, rewards and punishes accordingly. The virtue of justice guides people and enables interactions among them to go smoothly.
   Some people seek justice not only in the things that affect them but for the fair treatment of everyone, even strangers. They confront injustice whenever and wherever it appears. Apathy is the greatest hindrance to justice. Justice is best adhered to in a democratic system where the rule if law is in operation and the citizens are law abiding.

Types of Justice
There are different types of justice. We shall consider three of the types of justice they are :
(i) Social justice
(ii) Organizational Justice
(iii) Distributive Justice

How to Develop the Value of Justice 

To be a just man or woman, you must develop knowledge of the rights and responsibilities that govern your family, community and nation. This knowledge is developed during interactions with people and begins at a very early stage of our life. Examples are apologizing to those you hurt, paying back what you have destroyed or damaged, keeping to promises made and apologizing if you fail to keep such promises, treating others fairly etc.

(B) Selflessness
Selflessness refers to caring about other people more than yourself. It is an act of sacrificing one's own interest for the greater good of others. It involves the attitude of working and assisting others without expecting any reward or gain. A selfless person is concerned greatly with the welfare of others.
  If we give help to others, but expect recognition or the favour to be returned, then it is not a selfless action. True selflessness means we would do the action, even if it was never known to anyone else. Selflessness also means the attitude of identifying with others. Our service to others should not show feelings of superiority, as though it is below one's dignity but should be motivated by a feeling of oneness. We must help others because we identify with their problems and sufferings. The opposite of selflessness is selfishness.

(C) Involvement in Community Services

Meaning of Community Service and Community Development 

Community service is volunteered service or activity that is performed by a person, group or organization for the benefit of the public without any compensation. However, there are some people who provide community services and receive some form of compensation in return. A community service that is rendered as a selfless activity is a type of value that is expected of any individual, group or organisation. This values helps the community to develop.
   Community development is associated with community work or community planning. This is conducted by government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other corporate bodies for the progress of the social well-being of people in the local, state and national communities.
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